Abstract Background & Objectives
Titanium particles/ions detected in peri-implant tissues have been considered as a potential etiologic factor for crestal bone loss around oral implants. However, the definite impact of titanium wear particles on the health of surrounding structures remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of titanium particles-induced foreign body reaction on peri-implant bone level and the related mechanism by using clodronate liposomes to deplete macrophages.
Titanium particles had a negative effect on peri-implant tissue by activating macrophages which induced an M1 macrophage phenotype promoting local secretion of inflammatory cytokines. It was found that clodronate liposome treatment attenuated the severity of inflammation and bone loss by depletion of macrophages. Therefore, the present study revealed the marked impact of macrophage polarization with respect to peri-implant bone loss caused by titanium particles.