All DTI (Dental Titanium Implant)-FDOJ (Fatty Degeneration with Osteonecrosis of the Jaw) samples showed RANTES/CCL5 (R/C) as the only extremely overexpressed cytokine. DTI-FDOJ cohort showed a 30-fold mean overexpression of R/C as compared with a control cohort of 19 healthy JB samples.
Implant surface characteristics, as well as physical and mechanical properties, are responsible for the positive interaction between the dental implant, the bone and the surrounding soft tissues.
Here we show that a strong inflammatory response occurs; however, very few of the titanium particles are phagocytosed by the macrophages. We then measured a dramatic Ti particle-induced stimulation of IL1β, IL6, and TNFα secretion by these macrophages using multiplex immunoassay. The particle-induced expression profile, examined by FACS, also indicated an M1 macrophage polarization.