All patients lost one or more implants despite undergoing peri-implant or treatment. Peri-implantitis tissue contained significantly higher concentrations of Ti than control samples with a mean ± SD of 98.7 ± 85.6 and 1.2 ± 0.9 μg/g, respectively. Particulate metal was identified in peri-implantitis and control biopsies, but element analyses could confirm only the presence of Ti in peri-implantitis tissue.
We showed that high contents of particulate and submicron Ti were present in peri-implantitis tissue. These high Ti contents in peri-implant mucosa can potentially aggravate inflammation, which might reduce the prognosis of treatment interventions.