A variety of studies have shown the relationship between peri-implantitis and functionally relevant polymorphisms in the genes of cytokines IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-RN and TNFA. Using genetic testing allows for the allocation of a certain degree of inflammation to the detected combination of alleles.
Patients with degree 3-4 are considered high responders and are thus risk patients for titanium associated inflammatory processes/ loss of implant. Tab 1.
RELATIVE RISK OF LOSS OF IMPLANTS
Degree of inflammation 0 | Risk 1.0
Degree of inflammation 1 | Risk 1.5
Degree of inflammation 2 | Risk 2.4
Degree of inflammation 3 | Risk 3.8
Degree of inflammation 4 | Risk 6.0
In Germany a Titanium Stimulation test is also available. A positive result to titanium stimulation increases the risk by a further 12 fold.